AIS SIGHCI Research Resources ICIS 2007 HCI Workshop
- Attitude as a Measure of Acceptance: Monitoring IS Implementation in a Hospital Setting
Bram Pynoo, Pieter Devolder, Tony Voet, Jan Vercruysse, Luc Adang, and Philippe Duyck
The aim of this study was to assess whether Attitude Toward Technology (ATT) is a better measure of technology acceptance than Behavioral Intention (BI) in a mandatory medical setting. A questionnaire was taken in two hospitals, one university (Setting 1) and one private (Setting 2). The technology studied was PACS (Picture Archiving and Communication System). The questionnaire was taken on several occasions: preimplementation (T1, both Settings); three months postimplementation (T2, S2); and one year after the transition was completed (T3, S1; S2 is underway). Four models were assessed: (1a) original TAM with ATT, (1b) TAM with BI replacing ATT, (2a) UTAUT, and (2b) UTAUT with ATT replacing BI. Our preliminary results indicate that ATT is indeed a better measure for acceptance than BI. Variance explained in ATT ranged from .47 to .72, in BI from .12 to .45. BI was the best predictor of USE.
- Online Trust and Health Information Websites
Cynthia L. Corritore, Susan Wiedenbeck, Beverly Kracher, and Robert P. Marble
This study develops and tests a model of online trust of a health care website. The model showed a statistically strong fit to the data (N=176). Trust was significantly explained by perceptions of credibility, ease of use, and risk. Perceived ease of use was a direct predictor of trust and an indirect predictor through credibility. Credibility was both a direct predictor of trust and an indirect predictor through risk.
- Antecedents of the Intention to Disclose Personal Information on the Internet: A Review and Model Extension
Horst Treiblmaier and Sandy Chong
In order to reap the benefits which the Internet offers, users often have to provide personal information over the Web. Data types that are frequently required by online vendors include names, mailing and e-mail addresses, telephone numbers or credit card numbers. Previous research has identified several antecedents which influence users’ decisions on providing personal details over the Web. This paper adds to the existing research by scrutinizing the concept of personal information and positing an individual's perceived risk of personal information as an antecedent of information disclosure. The results of an empirical survey show that users differentiate between various types of personal data according to the risk of privacy intrusion. Perceived risk of personal information turns out to be a stronger predictor for the intention to provide personal information online than trust in the Internet or in the online vendor.
- Creating Rapport and Intimate Interactions with Online Virtual Advisors
Sameh Al-Natour, Izak Benbasat, and Ronald T. Cenfetelli
Adopting the view that users perceive their interactions with technological artifacts as social and interpersonal, this paper offers a number of propositions regarding the expected effects of two relationship-level constructs, namely, rapport and intimacy, which have been shown to be influential antecedents to interpersonal relationship satisfaction and interaction quality. Both constructs are proposed to be salient beliefs within the context of users’ interactions with virtual advisors, subsequently, affecting users’ evaluations of these advisors. In addition to offering a conceptualization of these two constructs and their individual dimensions, we also offer a number of propositions in regards to how these two constructs can be influenced using a number of design characteristics that have been discussed in prior literature.
- Understanding Highly Competent Information System Users
Brenda Eschenbrenner and Fiona Fui-Hoon Nah
Individuals differ in their abilities to use information systems (IS) effectively, with some achieving exceptional performance in IS use. Using the Repertory Grid Technique, this research identifies attributes of highly competent IS users that distinguish them from less competent users. Using the Grounded Theory approach, we identified categories and sub-categories of these attributes and used them to develop a conceptual framework to explain IS User Competency. The findings indicate that highly competent users differ from less competent users in their Personality Traits and Disposition Factors, General Cognitive Abilities, Social Skills and Tendencies, Experiential Learning Factors, Domain Knowledge of and Skills in IS, Job Experiences, Generation Factors, and Education. The results not only highlight attributes that can be fostered in other IS users to improve their performance with IS use but they also present research opportunities for IS training and potential hiring criteria for IS users in organizations.
- Perceived Interactivity Leading to E-Loyalty: An Empirical Investigation of Web-Poll Design
Dianne Cyr, Milena Head, and Alex Ivanov
With the growth of e-commerce, novel applications of website interactivity are important to attract and retain online users. In this empirical study five levels of interactivity are examined using different web-poll applications. A model is created to validate the relationship of perceived interactivity to efficiency, effectiveness, enjoyment, and trust of the website. Further, specific elements of interactivity including control and user connectedness are examined for their relationship to trust. In turn, efficiency, effectiveness, enjoyment and trust are tested for their impact on eloyalty. All relationships in the model are supported. In addition, qualitative comments from users regarding the various web-poll treatments were analyzed with subtle differences detected between treatments. The research advances knowledge on the consequences of perceived interactivity. It has additional merit in that the treatments employed and their outcomes will be of interest to web designers and online marketers for how to enhance interactive online web applications.
- The Role of Technology, Content, and Context for the Success of Social Media
Helen S. Du and Christian Wagner
Social media, a new form of electronic media for social engagement and interaction, are becoming important means of communication and valuable assets for both individuals and organizations. Used by millions of online consumers and many leading business practitioners, social media, however, has remained largely unexplored by business researchers. This study, therefore, seeks to broaden our understanding by investigating weblog success in achieving readership popularity. Drawing on the techno-social perspective of media and the cognitive psychology concepts of mindfulness and mindlessness, we conjecture that readership popularity of a social media site is associated with its technology-dependent, contentdependent and context-dependent characteristics. To validate the proposed research model, a set of very popular weblogs will be studied over a period of time. We will adopt a methodology which includes an objective evaluation of the sites and a survey of individual readers.
- Individual Determinants of Media Choice for Deception
Gabriel Giordano and Christopher Furner
Recent research has found that deceivers are extremely difficult to detect in computer-mediated work settings. However, it is unclear which individuals are likely to use computer systems for deception in these settings. This study looked at how 172 upper-level business students’ political skill, social skill, and tendency to use impression management was related to their deception media choice in a business scenario. We found that most individuals preferred e-mail and face-to-face media to the phone for deception. However, the individuals with high social skill, individuals with high political skill, and individuals with a tendency to use impression management predominately chose the phone and face-to-face methods for deception. These findings imply that organizations do need to be aware of deception in e-mail communications; however, they also need to be aware of deception in phone and face-to-face settings, since this deception will likely be coming from individuals that are skilled deceivers.
- Why People Tag? Motivations for Content Tagging
Oded Nov and Chen Ye
Tagging, or using keywords to annotate images, bookmarks, and blogs, is gaining much popularity. Since tagging is seen as an important change in the way images are organized and shared, we need to understand what drives this behavior. We draw on taxonomy of individual-level motivations for tagging, and research on the impact of social presence on tagging, and examine the drivers of tagging. We develop a scale of tagging motivations, which distinguishes between motivations stemming from three categories of intended audience: the taggers themselves, their family and friends, and the general public. Using multiple sources, including a survey and independent system data, we find that the levels of the Self and Public motivations, as well as social presence factor are positively associated with tagging level, and that the family & friends motivation is not associated significantly with tagging level. Implications of the research are discussed.
- Positive and Negative Affect in IT Evaluation: A Longitudinal Study
Ping Zhang and Na (Lina) Li
This study investigates the impacts of affective evaluations of IT on IT use decisions. We propose two object-based affective evaluation constructs: perception of an IT’s capability to induce positive affect (PC-PA) and perception of the IT’s capability to induce negative affect (PC-NA). A longitudinal study shows that PC-PA and PC-NA are distinct concepts that have different effects on commonly studied IT adoption factors, perceived usefulness (PU), perceived ease of use (PEOU), and attitude toward using the IT (ATB). These effects hold true during both initial use and continued use. PC-PA influences PU, PEOU and ATB but becomes less important to PU over time, and PC-NA only influences PEOU but becomes more important to PEOU over time. The study also offers a specific instrument on measuring affective evaluations of IT and points out future research directions.
- Proposing the Interactivity-Stimulus-Attention Model (ISAM) to Explain and Predict the Enjoyment, Immersion, and Adoption of Purely Hedonic Systems
Paul Benjamin Lowry, Nathan W. Twyman, James Gaskin, Bryan Hammer, Aaron R. Bailey, and Tom L. Roberts
Traditional TAM research primarily focuses on utilitarian systems where extrinsic motivations chiefly explain and predict acceptance. We propose a theoretical model, ISAM, which explains the role of intrinsic motivations in building the user attention that leads to hedonic system acceptance. ISAM combines several theories with TAM to explain how interactivity acts as a stimulus in hedonic contexts—fostering curiosity, enjoyment, and the full immersion of cognitive resources. Two experiments involving over 700 participants validated ISAM as a useful model for explaining and predicting hedonic system acceptance. Immersion and PE are shown to be the primary predictors of behavioral intention to use hedonic systems. Unlike traditional utilitarian adoption research, PEOU does not directly impact BIU, and extrinsic motivations are virtually non-existent. The implications of this study extend beyond hedonic contexts, as users of utilitarian systems continue to demand more hedonic features and enjoyment is often more important than PEOU.
- BioGauges: Toward More Objective Evaluation of Biometrically-Based Interfaces
Adriane B. Randolph, Melody Moore Jackson, and Steven G. Mason
In an effort to better understand and fully characterize human interaction with biometrically-based interfaces, the BioGauges method and toolset are presented. BioGauges provide a mechanism for determining the range, reliability, and granularity of control possible for a user operating a biometrically-based interface. We first demonstrate the method with a study of ten able-bodied people characterizing two different continuous biometrically-based interfaces with a thresholded task. Then, we further demonstrate the method by assessing the spatial granularity of two continuous biometrically-based interfaces for five people with varying stages of paralysis due to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).
- Evaluating the Antecedents of the Technology Acceptance Model in Saudi Arabia
Chad Anderson, Geoffrey Hubona, and Said Al-Gahtani
Antecedents of the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) have been the focus of research on user intentions toward new technology in developed countries for years. Findings from these studies can potentially reveal new methods to improve employee acceptance and use of new systems. The present study investigates whether the antecedents of perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use also apply in developing countries, specifically in Saudi Arabia. Findings indicate that the antecedents of TAM do, in fact, apply in Saudi Arabia, and therefore also have implications for businesses in developing countries to improve the user acceptance and use of new technologies.
- Measuring Interactivity: An Instrument Development and Initial Assessment of a Model of the Interactivity Construct
Damon Campbell and Ryan Wright
This research posits a new measurement instrument of the Interactivity construct. This operationalization is based on Steuer’s (1992) conceptualization. Steuer (1992) proposed a definition of Interactivity based on the three sub-factors of speed, range, and mapping. However, no articles found in a citation track of Steuer (1992) used these sub-factors in measuring the construct. In order to provide a foundation for further work in this area, measurement items were developed to model interactivity as a formative second-order factor as proposed by Steuer (1992). Two laboratory experiments are used for this purpose. Results from the first exploratory study are presented and identify measurement items for the three sub-factors identified by Steuer (1992). The second study is proposed to confirm the results of study one by statistically comparing the developed instrument to existing instruments, and testing relationships between interactivity and other constructs that have been previously proposed in IS research literature.
- Human-Computer Interaction and Neuroscience: Science or Science Fiction?
René Riedl and Friedrich Roithmayr
We present two neuroscience experiments that have major implications for HCI research: First, we discuss a functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) study by Sanfey et al. (2003) who investigated brain activities of players of the Ultimatum Game. It was found that participants had a stronger emotional reaction to unfair offers from humans than to the same offers from a computer. Second, we discuss a Positron Emission Topography (PET) study by Haier et al. (1992) who studied participants playing the computer game Tetris over a period of several weeks. It was found that learning may result in decreased use of extraneous or inefficient brain areas. Finally, we stress the importance of measuring theoretical constructs in HCI research (e.g. user satisfaction) by using neuroscience techniques. Since theoretical constructs are neither directly observable nor objectively measurable, we argue that recent achievements in neuroscience technology will allow for directly measuring feelings and thoughts (e.g. satisfaction) in the future.
- Personal Health Manager – Designing an Intermediary System Supporting Health Education and Exercise Programs
Uta Knebel, Sebastian Esch, Jan Marco Leimeister, and Helmut Krcmar
The Personal Health Manager (PHM) is an IT-based product-service system (combining face to face, automated and computer-mediated services, hardware, software) supporting health exercise programs in workplace health promotion. Major HCI design challenges are different target groups, unstructured tasks, various hardware and service components, and finding the limit between face to face and automated services –ranging from top quality human supervision to cheap, scalable automated services in hedonic systems. We present an iterative development and test design as well as first design ideas. Through this case we try to highlight that traditional MIS and HCI approaches ‘as is’ are hardly applicable for designing ITbased product-service systems and that new approaches are necessary.
- The Effects of Dispositional Resistance to Change on Perceived Ease of Use
Oded Nov and Chen Ye
The introduction of new information systems often involves user resistance due to the changes associated with adopting new technologies. Therefore, it is important to understand how individuals’ resistance to change influences their perceptions of new technologies. Personality traits are commonly used in the psychology literature to explain human beliefs and behavior across different domains, and recently see a growing interest in the IS literature as an explanatory tool in the domain of technology related behavior. Research in social psychology has found Resistance to Change (RTC) to be a fundamental personality trait that influences individuals’ beliefs and behavior in situations involving change. In the present study we explore the relationship between RTC and Perceived Ease of Use, using a survey of 170 users of a digital library system. The preliminary findings suggest that RTC is a significant determinant of perceived ease of use. Implications of the findings are discussed.
- The Effects of Identifiability, Trust, and Deception on Information Sharing Behaviors in an Anonymous System
Robert Sainsbury and Anthony Vance
Sharing sensitive information can help organizations better understand risks in the environment in which they operate. However, the lack of a trusted, anonymous method for collecting and distributing sensitive information, together with substantial risks associated with disclosing such information, has limited the extent of information sharing among organizations. This research examines the potential of Trusted Query Network (TQN), a methodology for anonymously distributing information among trusted parties. Specifically, this research examines users' perceptions of trust towards the anonymity of the TQN system and the effect of identifiability on users' tendency to be deceptive. A free simulation experiment is proposed to test a theoretical model that explains how trust, identifiability, and deception affect users' information sharing behaviors in an anonymous system.
- Group Collaboration Patterns in Scientific Laboratories
This study explores group collaborations in traditional hands-on labs and computer automated simulated and remote labs. The primary purpose is to discover group collaboration patterns based on four dimensions: group proximity, communication media, group coordination structure and time on task. A factorial experiment is designed to collect the data from more than 200 students. Cluster analysis is used to analyze the data. The results suggest that students have different patterns of collaboration, both between lab groups and between lab formats. There are three distinct patterns in remote labs, four patterns in simulated labs and two patterns in hands-on labs. These differences seem to be related to learning effectiveness. The key characteristics of these clusters need to be further investigated and evaluated. These findings, along with others yet to be analyzed, promise to be fruitful for understanding, analyzing, and managing virtual collaboration, remote education, and design of information systems.
- Collaborative Learning in Engineering Education: A Grounded Theory Analysis of a CSCL Application
Michelle J. Boese, Hong Sheng, and Richard Hall
This study examines how students collaborate on engineering problems and the effect of information technology on facilitating collaboration. Twenty-eight undergraduate engineering students were placed in small groups to discuss questions about mechanics of materials, either face-to-face or via a keyboard chat. Students were interviewed after completing the tasks, and the interviews were analyzed using the grounded theory approach. The resulting framework suggests that social goals as well as achievement goals are major motivations for students’ behavior in the team situation, and that technology and group characteristics were acknowledged to influence their actions during and after the cooperation.
- 007 To The Rescue – Cognitive Fit of Operations Research and Agent-Based Decision Support
Elfriede I. Krauth, Jos van Hillegersberg, and Steef L. van de Velde
Adoption rates of traditional Operations Research (OR) based decision support systems (DSS) suffer from perceived complexity of the underlying model and its detrimental effect on user-friendliness. The mental effort required to understand abstract models can hinder adoption. This barrier may seem even greater to people with low analytic capabilities. Unfortunately it is often this user group that could benefit the most from using OR based DSS. Agent based approaches on the other hand typically model negotiations between real-world counterparts. Extending cognitive fit theory we argue that presenting DSS in an agent based fashion allows for a closer match between the model presented on screen and the mental model of the user. We tested the impact of DSS presentation on perceived usefulness in a lab experiment (n=118). Our data suggests that an agent presentation outperforms an OR based DSS for perceived usefulness for low analytic users.