International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction
Special Issue on Enterprise Resource Planning: Management, Social & Organizational Issues
Volume 16, Number 1, 2003

Guest Editor

Fiona Fui-Hoon Nah, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Background

This Special Edition of IJHCI addresses the human-computer aspects of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) implementation. It covers the management, social and organizational issues involved in ERP implementation.

Papers in the Special Issue

ERP Implementation: Chief Information Officers' Perceptions of Critical Success Factors
Fiona Fui-Hoon Nah, Kathryn M. Zuckweiler, and Janet Lee-Shang Lau

This article reports the results of a survey of Chief Information Officers (CIOs) from Fortune 1000 companies on their perceptions of the critical success factors in Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) implementation. Through a review of the literature, we identified eleven critical success factors, with underlying sub-factors, for successful ERP implementation. We assessed the degree of criticality of each of these factors in a survey administered to the CIOs. The five most critical factors identified by the CIOs are top management support, project champion, ERP teamwork & composition, project management, and change management program & culture. The importance of each of these factors is discussed.


Implementation Partner Involvement and Knowledge Transfer in the Context of ERP Implementations
Marc N. Haines and Dale L. Goodhue

ERP systems are difficult and costly to implement. Studies show that a large portion of the overall implementation cost can be attributed to consulting fees. Indeed, hardly any organization has the internal knowledge and skills to implement an ERP system successfully without external help. Therefore it becomes crucial to use consultants effectively to improve the likelihood of success and simultaneously keep the overall costs low. In this article the authors draw from agency theory to generate a framework, which explains how consultant involvement and the knowledge of implementing organization can impact the outcome of the project. Portions of the framework are illustrated by examples from a series of interviews involving 12 companies that had implemented an ERP. It is suggested that choosing the right consultants and using their skills and knowledge appropriately, as well as transferring and retaining essential knowledge within the organization is essential to the overall success of an ERP system implementation.


A Process Change-Oriented Model for ERP Application
Majed Al-Mashari

Though the application of enterprise resource planning systems has become widespread, many organizational experiences have shown that resulting outcomes fall short of expectations. Best-practice experiences, however, have proven that effective application is centred on an integrative approach, which seeks to achieve a balance between certain key organizational elements. This paper presents a novel process change management-based model that considers the key areas in ERP implementation, including strategy, business processes, structure, culture, IT and managerial systems. The model is grounded by empirical-based evidence drawn from a survey of various organizational practices with ERP implementation.


Analyzing ERP Implementation at a Public University Using the Innovation Strategy Model
Keng Siau and Jake Messersmith

Enterprise Resource Planning systems have revolutionized the way companies are using information technology in their businesses. ERP was created in an effort to streamline business processes and has proven to be successful in many operations. Unfortunately, not all ERP implementations have met expectations. One way that businesses may be able to increase the success rates of their implementations is to embrace creativity and innovation in ERP implementation. In order for businesses to do this, they must first understand how creativity originates and how that creativity can be integrated into business solutions. This paper offers a case study to examine the ERP implementation at a public university and analyzes the applicability of the Innovation Strategy Model on public sector organizations.


Misalignments in ERP Implementation: A Dialectical Perspective
Christina Soh, Siew Kien Sia, Wai Fong Boh, and May Tang

Enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems are often not fully aligned with the implementing organization. It is important to understand their sources of misalignments since they can have significant implications for the organization. From a dialectic perspective, such misalignments are the result of opposing forces that arise from structures embedded in the ERP package and the organization. An intensive case study was conducted in one organization that has experienced significant misalignments with its ERP implementation. A typology of the misalignments and four pairs of dialectic forces were identified. Articulating deeper structural level misalignments enables organizations to examine their assumptions about the "permanent" characteristics of the organization and helps surface misalignments early to aid planning for resolution strategies.


The Decision-Support Characteristics of ERP Systems
Clyde W. Holsapple and Mark P. Sena

Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems have been widely adopted in large organizations. These systems store critical knowledge used to make the decisions that drive an organization's performance. However, ERP systems are known primarily for their transactional rather than their decision-support characteristics. This study examines the extent to which adopters of ERP systems perceive characteristics typically associated with decision support systems. It also examines the importance that adopters place on such characteristics. The major findings are that ERP adopters perceive substantial levels of decision support characteristics in their ERP systems and that they consider such characteristics to be important. The study also examines differences in decision-support perceptions among demographic groups. By delineating the current state of ERP systems as they pertain to decision support, the results establish areas that vendors and adopters can focus on to improve the level of decision support provided by their ERP systems.

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