AIS SIGHCI Research Resources ICIS 2003 HCI Workshop Papers

  1. Gender and Personality in Media Rich Interfaces: Do Birds of a Feather Flock Together?
    Traci J. Hess, Mark A. Fuller and John Mathew

    This research explores how user and interface characteristics can interact to influence decision performance. Specifically, this research examines the effects of gender, personality similarity, and increased levels of information cues on user involvement with a computer-based decision aid. In addition, this research explores the downstream effects of user involvement on decision time, effort, satisfaction, confidence, and quality. Findings indicate that gender has a significant influence on user involvement, and that involvement and the level of information cues provided by the decision aid have a direct influence on decision performance.

  2. A Test of the Theory of DSS Design for User Calibration: The Effects of Expressiveness and Visibility on User Calibration.
    Brian M. Ashford and George M. Kasper

    This paper reports a test of the theory of decision support systems design for user calibration that compares the efficiency of the visual computing paradigm with that of the conventional text paradigm over varied levels of problem novelty. Perfect user calibration exists when a user’s confidence in a decision equals the quality of the decision. The laboratory study reported here compared the effects on user calibration of problems depicted either using a text paradigm or visual computing paradigm. The results support the theory. When problems are new and novel, visual depiction improves user calibration. As problems became more familiar and problem novelty decreases, no difference was found in user calibration between subjects exposed to visibility diagrams and those exposed to a traditional text paradigm.

  3. When Information Technology Design Favors Form over Function: Where is the Value-added "Tipping Point"?
    Rita M. Vick and Brent Auernheimer

    Performing usability analysis early in the design process results in lower overall development, deployment, and maintenance costs. Pre-development user and task analysis through questionnaires, observation, low-fidelity prototyping, and usability testing enables productive interactive testing of subsequent operable system prototypes. This helps assure a positive return on investment in information technology. When usercentered design assessment is supplanted by assumptions about user, task, and work environment, the result is often production of applications embellished with functionality unrelated to the user’s task. Surveys were administered to elicit user perception of system usability and usefulness and of satisfaction with intra-team interaction. This was the first step in determining the relationship between form and function for users of a Synchronous Distributed-Decision Support System (SD-DSS). It was anticipated that the teamwork process would be most troublesome while the SD-DSS would be perceived as easy to use and functional. The reverse proved to be the case.

  4. A Communication Goals Model of Online Persuasion.
    E. Vance Wilson and Ying Lu

    Online communication media are being used increasingly for attempts to persuade message receivers. This paper presents a theoretical model that predicts outcomes of online persuasion based on the structure of primary and secondary goals message receivers hold toward the communication.

  5. The "Voice Effect" in Groups.
    Tom L. Roberts and Paul Benjamin Lowry

    This study looks at how collaborative technology, proximity choices, and group size can affect voicing in groups. Results of the study, involving two experiments with 550 participants, show that collaborative technology can improve an individual’s desire to voice, instrumental motives to voice, non-instrumental motives to voice, and the opportunity to voice in face-to-face groups. The results also show that the use of collaborative technology can lesson individual voice losses as groups increase in size especially in distributed environments. These findings have important implications in group interactions using technology.

  6. An Empirical Investigation of Antecedents of Internet Abuse in the Workplace.
    Dennis F. Galletta and Peter Polak

    This study examined the extent to which employees engage in Internet abuse, and whether any of 15 antecedents predict the amount of that abuse. Data were collected from 571 Usenet users in an on-line survey. Aggregating the time for each of the eleven listed methods of Internet abuse revealed a total of 5.8 hours per week, on average. Most of the antecedents in two of the three Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) categories (Attitudes and Subjective Norms), were significant, and none of the antecedents in the third TPB category (Perceived Behavioral Control) showed significance. addiction, self-justification, job satisfaction, peer culture, and supervisor culture were significant predictors of Internet abuse. Exploratory demographic factors computer experience, gender, and firm revenue also showed predictive power.

  7. HCI Research Transfer to Practice: Better Together (Panel)
    Mary Czerwinski, Izak Benbasat, Julie Ratner, Radhika Santhanam, Peter Todd

    Currently, HCI researchers and HCI practitioners work in relatively separate spheres of influence. Practitioners often question the value of academic HCI research and desire more practical directions. HCI researchers often wonder if their research findings are communicated via the optimal channels for influencing practitioners’ process and direction, or whether their results generalize to the real workaday world of HCI. This panel attempts to outline what practitioners need from their academic partners, and how they think these needs can be addressed by academic research. Academics on the panel will state what they see as interesting future research challenges, and whether or how they think they can address the practitioner community’s interests. The practitioners on the panel will then state their opinions about the opportunities for technology transfer from academia to practice.

  8. A Model Made of Paper: Clinicians Navigate the Electronic Health Record
    Catherine Arnott Smith

    The electronic health record (EHR) is actually an aggregation of individual clinical documents. Medical records document not only the knowledge domains of clinical practice, but the work processes and practices that support these domains. Human-computer interaction is an important factor in EHR system success: researchers have argued that clinician readers consciously perceive the context of production, and integrate an understanding of the producer into their understanding of the data. In support, this paper reports findings of an information retrieval study using a simulated EHR containing
    deidentified clinical documents. Physician subjects verbally demonstrated use of a mental model of the paper medical record during their navigation of the system. Clinicians may actively apply a mental representation of their domain of practice—and actively refer to this paperbased knowledge base—when they access medical data. An understanding of the mental models that clinicians use would greatly inform our understanding of EHR systems.

  9. Effect of Presentation Flaws on Users' Perception of Quality of On-Line Stores' Web Sites: Is it Perception that really Counts?
    Andrea Everard and Dennis F. Galletta *

    Presentation flaws are abundant in web sites, but there has been no study to determine how presentation flaws affect consumers’ perceptions of quality of an on-line store, trust in the store, and  ultimately the intention to purchase. The theoretical foundation stems from various relevant streams of literature: trust and credibility, impression formation, and impression management. A laboratory
    experiment examined three main factors, incompleteness, error, and poor style, and used 160 student subjects in a completely balanced, fully factorial design (2x2x2). It was found that error, incompleteness, and poor style affected consumers’ perceived quality of the web site. Furthermore, it was found that the relationship between the factors and perceived quality was mediated by the
    perception of the flaws. The perception of flaws rather than the actual flaws influenced users’ perception of quality.

  10. Exploring Website Evaluation Criteria using the Repertory Grid Technique: A Web Designers' Perspective.
    Felix B Tan and Lai Lai Tung

    This study aims to investigate web designers’ perceptions of an “effective” website. Twenty web designers were interviewed using Kelly’s Repertory Grid Technique in order to elicit factors that they consider important when designing or developing B2C websites. Using grounded theory approach, these elicited data were then classified into 14 meta-categories. The intensive nature of the interviews eventually gave rise to a comprehensive framework that broadens the base of existing web evaluation literature. This framework is based on an adapted Technology Acceptance Model with the 4 dimensions of Perceived Ease of Use, Perceived Usefulness, Perceived Playfulness and Attractiveness.

  11. Usability and Efficacy Reactions to Object-Orientation: The Impact of Prior Knowledge.
    Liping Liu

    In this paper, we examine how prior knowledge impacts usability and efficacy reactions to object-oriented techniques. We develop research hypotheses based on the multiconstraint theory of analogical reasoning. We empirically test the hypotheses in an open learning setting. We observed a significant interaction effect: the subjects with prior knowledge on either data or process modeling
    technique perceived greater difficulty and less confidence in learning object-oriented techniques than novices as well as those who have prior knowledge on both structured techniques. Prior knowledge explained 19% of the variance in both usability and efficacy reactions and, as a common cause, partially explained their correlation.

  12. Evaluation of the Impacts of Data Model and Query Language on Query Performance.
    Hock Chuan Chan and Lian Xiang

    It is important to understand how users can utilize database systems more effectively to enhance performance. A major research interest is to evaluate and compare user performance across different data models and query languages. So far, experiments have tested combinations of model plus language. An interesting theoretical and practical question is: how much of the performance difference is caused by the data model itself, and how much by the additional query language syntax? A cognitive model of query processing suggests measurement at two stages. The data model has impact at the first stage, and the model with the query language syntax together has the impact at the second stage. An experiment that compares the objected-oriented and relational models and query languages at the two stages provides fresh results.

  13. End User Query Performance: The Interaction of User Characteristics and Information Request Ambiguity.
    Paul L. Bowen, Fiona H. Rohde and Chiu Yueh Alice Wu

    This paper investigates the effects of personality characteristics on individuals’ abilities to resolve ambiguity in an information retrieval environment. In particular, this research examines the effects on query performance of the interaction of personality characteristics (as measured using the NEO PI-R) with information requests that contained extraneous, syntactic, or both extraneous and syntactic ambiguities. The results indicate that ambiguity affected performance. The results also show that various personality dimensions significantly affect end-users’ abilities to compose accurate queries. Neuroticism, agreeableness, openness to experience, and conscientiousness affected the number of errors made in the query formulations. Conscientiousness affected the length of time taken to compose the queries and neuroticism affected the confidence end users had in the accuracy of their queries. In addition, the results indicated that, while the personality dimensions affected performance, there was no interaction between the personality dimensions and ambiguity.

  14. Development of a Framework for Trust in Mobile Commerce.
    Keng Siau, Hong Sheng and Fiona Nah *

    Mobile commerce represents a significant development in e-commerce. Despite the potential of mobile commerce, trust is a major obstacle in its adoption and development. The focus of this research is to develop a framework to identify the factors influencing trust in mobile commerce and to explain the development of such trust using a means-ends objective network. We utilized the Value- Focused Thinking approach to interview subjects in order to identify their fundamental and means objectives concerning trust in mobile commerce and to construct a means-ends objective network. A trust framework is developed from the means-ends objective network. As one of the first research on trust in mobile commerce, the framework developed in this study provides valuable information for researchers and practitioners, and serves as a conceptual foundation for future research in mobile commerce.

  15. A Study of Task Characteristics and User Intention to Use Handheld Devices for Mobile Commerce.
    Xiaowen Fang, Susy Chan, Jacek Brzezinski and Shuang Xu *

    Interface design and the selection of appropriate tasks for small-screen mobile applications are issues critical for mobile commerce. Our earlier research has identified five major task factors that may influence user intention to use handheld devices for wireless applications. These factors are: perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, perceived playfulness, perceived task complexity, and perceived security. We followed up with a questionnairebased empirical study to validate the relative impact of these proposed task factors on user intention to use handheld devices for mobile commerce. This paper confirms significant correlations between the task factors and user intention. However, only three of the five factors -- perceived usefulness, perceived security, and perceived playfulness -- are important to user intention, explaining 30% of the variations in a multiple regression model. This study makes a unique contribution to HCI and MIS research by providing empirical evidence of user perception of task characteristics for mobile commerce.

  16. Post-Adoption Behavior of Mobile Internet Users: A Model-Based Comparison between Continuers and Discontinuers.
    Hoyoung Kim and Jinwoo Kim *

    Many mobile Internet users are not continuing to use mobile Internet services after initial use. This study aims to explore how such users (discontinuers) differ from ongoing users (continuers) in terms of accepting mobile Internet technology. We propose an adoption model for the mobile Internet consisting of seven critical factors. An on-line survey was conducted on the basis of this model to compare
    continuers and discontinuers. The survey results show that discontinuers are more sensitive to usefulness and social influences in using mobile Internet services, while continuers are more sensitive to ubiquitous connectivity.

  17. Finding Common Ground Among HCI Reference Disciplines (Panel)
    Dennis Galletta, Jonathan Lazar, Judy Olson, Dov Te'eni, Marilyn Tremaine, and Jane Webster

    Five panelists provide an interesting set of contrasting points of view of the HCI field from four distinct disciplines: Business, Computer Science, Information Science, and Psychology. Panelists are asked to respond to six questions in their presentations that address what their particular field offers that is unique, what seems to be quite similar, the effects of the overlaps, and advice for the future. Many of the panelists represent multiple fields, providing a unique opportunity to address the issues of overlap.

  18. Is Relevance Relevant? Investigating Coherence in Knowledge Sharing Environments.
    Andrew Gemino, Drew Parker and Adrienne Olnick Kutzschan 

    This paper focuses on the impact of relevant backgrounds on computer-mediated knowledge sharing and individual knowledge acquisition. An experiment is described based on the coherence principle from the Cognitive Theory of Multi-Media Learning. Results suggest groups using visual chat scored higher in retention and understanding than individuals working alone. In addition, participants using visual chat with relevant backgrounds obtained higher levels of understanding than participants using no relevance or irrelevant backgrounds. These results support the coherence principle in the cognitive theory of multimedia learning and suggest new directions in the design and evaluation of knowledge sharing environments.

  19. Interactivity and Control: the Case of Dynamic Maps for Navigation in Hypertext.
    Dov Te'eni and Hadar Ronen

    Rich information environments such as online tutorials and web-books pose considerable difficulties for users, of which the most notable is being ‘lost in hypertext’. If these environments are to become commonplace, they must be designed to relieve users of these difficulties. In this paper we study the effects of dynamic navigational maps on orientation and search performance. We designed a conceptual map that tracks the user’s position vis-à-vis the content of the web-book and the history of the user’s visits. We show how these maps improve search performance significantly in terms of efficiency (number of clicks) but only weakly in terms of time or accuracy. We call for more research on how to enhance user control in complex information environments.

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